Showing posts with label chemistry. Show all posts
Showing posts with label chemistry. Show all posts

Why Does Ice Float On Water?


When we drop ice into water, a question comes to our mind that why does ice float on water rather than sinking like most of the solids. In order to understand the answer to this question, we try to divide this question into two parts. First of all, we try to know ‘why does anything floats on water?’ and ‘why does anything sinks in the water?’. After getting answers to these questions, we will be in a better position to understand the answer to the question ‘Why does ice floats on water?’.


why does ice float on the water


Why does anything sink in the water?

Why does anything sink in the water?


If we drop anything into the water and it sinks, it means that thing is denser than water. In other words, this thing has a greater mass per unit volume than water. The density of water is 997 kg/m³. If we drop anything into the water whose density is greater than water, it will sink into the water. For example, if we drop a small part of iron into the water, it will sink into the water. Its reason is that iron has density 7873 kg/m³ and that density of iron is much greater than the density of water.

Why does anything float on water?

Why does anything float on water?


If we drop anything in the water and it floats on the surface of the water, it means that water is denser than that thing. In other words, we can also say that this thing has less mass per unit volume than water. If we drop wood in the water, it will float on the surface of the water rather than sinking. Its reason is that the density of the wood is from 320 kg/m³ to 550 kg/m³ and the density of water is 997 kg/m³. This difference in the density prevents the wood from sinking into the water. Due to this reason, wood floats on the surface of the water.

Related post: Difference between metals and non-metals

Why does ice floats on the surface of the water?

Why does ice floats on the surface of the water gif?


From the above discussion, I think you will get enough idea ‘Why ice floats on water?’. Water has a peculiar behaviour than other solids. Its reason is that on cooling, water converts into ice. Its density decreases rather than increasing like other solids. Water has a maximum density at 4-degree centigrade and if we further cool it, at zero degrees centigrade, it converts into ice and distance between their molecules increases. As a result, the density of ice decreases than the density of water. When we drop ice in the water, it floats on the surface of the water. Its reason is that the density of ice is 917 kg/m³ which is less than the density of water 997 kg/m³.

Why does water show peculiar behaviour?

Peculiar behavior of water


It is due to the hydrogen bonding. As we know that a water molecule is made up of one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms. One oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms in a water molecule are strongly attached with each other with the help of covalent bonds. Between the positively charged hydrogen atoms and negatively charged oxygen atoms, there are weaker hydrogen bonds. These weaker hydrogen bonds become the cause of the attraction of the water molecules. When we cool water below 4-degree centigrade, these hydrogen bonds adjust the negatively charged oxygen atoms apart from the positively charged hydrogen atoms. As a result, crystals are formed. These crystals are known as ice.

Difference Between Metals And Non-Metals


difference between metals and non-metals


If you don’t have any idea about characteristics of metals and non-metals, it is difficult to you to differentiate between metals and non-metals. Usually, it is known as metals are solid because they are hard, lustrous and opaque. On the other hand, non-metals can be solids or gasses. In the non-metals, the metallic properties are absent. Therefore, if we want to differentiate between metals and non-metals, it is necessary for us to get an idea about the characteristics of metals and non-metals. Here, we will discuss difference between metals and non-metals.

You can also read our other posts:
Why does ice float on water?
What is greenhouse effect?

Definition Of Metals


Metals are opaque and lustrous elements that can conduct heat and electricity. These metals are ductile and malleable and they are also denser than other elements.

Definition Of Non-Metals


Non-Metals are those elements which don’t have characteristics of metals. These non-metals have low melting and boiling points. These elements are less dense than metals.

Difference Between Metals And Non-Metals

difference between metals and non-metals gif


Metals and non-metals are different from one another in various ways. Their differences are explained below;

Meaning

difference between meaning of metals and non-metals


There is a specific difference between meanings of metals and non-metals. The meaning of metals is that metals are referred to such elements that are hard, shiny and dense. On the other hand, non-metals are those elements that are soft, non-shiny and brittle in nature.

Nature

nature of metals and non-metals

The nature of the metals is electropositive whereas nature of the non-metals is electronegative.

Structure

structure of metals and non-metals


The structure of the metals is crystalline. It means that it forms a crystal lattice that extends in all directions. On the other hand, structure of non-metals is amorphic. It means that it doesn’t have any defined shape.

Physical state

physical state of metals and non-metals


Most of the metals are solids whereas non-metals can be solid or liquid. It means that metals are solids at the room temperature whereas non-metals can be solid or liquid at the room temperature.

Place in the periodic table

place of metals and non-metals in periodic table


There is also a difference between the places of metals and non-metals in the periodic table. In the periodic table, metals are placed on the left side whereas; non-metals are placed on the right side.

Density

density of metals and non-metals


Density means that mass per unit area. The density of the metals is very high. On the other hand, density of the non-metals is very low.

Conduction

conductivity of metals and non-metals


Metals are good conductors of electricity and heat. Therefore, we can say that all the metals are conductors. On the other hand, non-metals are not good conductors of electricity and heat. Therefore, we can also say that non-metals are insulators.

Melting and boiling points

melting and boiling points of metals and non-metals


The melting and boiling points of metals are very high. It means that if we want to melt or boil a metal, we have to provide enough heat to the metal. On the other hand, non-metals have low melting and boiling points. It means that non-metals can easily be melted and boiled at lower temperature.

Location in the blocks

location of metals and non-metals in blocks


Metals are located in s, p, d and f blocks. On the other hand, non-metals are located in s and p blocks.

Ductility and malleability

Ductility and malleability of metals and non-metals


Another main difference between metals and non-metals is that metals show ductility and malleability. On the other hand, non-metals don’t show these kinds of properties.

Electrons

free electrons in metals and non-metals


As we know that in order to conduct heat and electricity, there requires free electrons. Metals have 1 to 3 electrons in their outer shell. Therefore, these electrons can easily free themselves and metals can easily conduct heat and electricity. On the other hand, non-metals have 4 to 8 free electrons. It means that there are no chances of free electrons in non-metals. That’s why non-metals are not good conductors of heat and electricity.

Transparency


All the metals are opaque whereas all the non-metals are transparent.

Reaction with oxygen


When we react metals and non-metals with oxygen, we see different kinds of reactions. After reacting with oxygen, metals form basic oxides. On the other hand, when non-metals react with oxygen, they form acidic oxides.

Reaction with acids


When metals react with acids, as a result of this reaction, hydrogen gas is produced. On the other hand, we can observe that non-metals don’t react with acids.

Examples

examples of metals and non-metals


Some essential examples of metals are Lithium and Barium etc. On the other hand, examples of non-metals are iodine and Bromine etc.



What is Greenhouse Effect?


Sun is the major source of heat on our Earth. When the Sun’s radiations fall on the Earth, the Earth absorbs these radiations. After absorbing these radiations, the Earth reflects some heat to the atmosphere. As we know that there are lots of gasses in our atmosphere. Some gasses like Methane, Oxides of Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide trap the reflected heat of the Earth. As a result, the temperature of the Earth becomes warmer. This phenomenon is known as the greenhouse effect.


what is greenhouse effect

What Are Greenhouse Gasses?

what are greenhouse gasses


The gasses which become the cause of the greenhouse effect are known as greenhouse gasses. These greenhouse gasses are produced either by natural resources or anthropogenic sources. These greenhouse gasses have lots of influence on the energy balance of the Earth. There are three major greenhouse gasses. First is known as Carbon Dioxide. Second is known as Methane. Thirdly are the Oxides of Nitrogen. No doubt, these gasses have a very low concentration in the atmosphere but nowadays, their concentration in the atmosphere is increasing due to some human activities.

You may also like:
Difference between metals and non-metals

What is the origin of the term greenhouse effect?

The scientists have discovered the greenhouse effect interestingly. The scientists decided to calculate the temperature of the Earth on the basis of the incoming radiations of the Sun and reflected radiations of the Earth. After making these calculations, they were amazed to know that the Earth should be much colder. After that, they decided to discover this phenomenon. They were able to get an idea that it is due to the holding and trapping of some energy in the Earth’s atmosphere by the greenhouse gasses. In 1896, the scientists further discovered that if the amount of greenhouse gasses will increase in the Earth’s atmosphere, the temperature of the Earth will also be increased.

Advantages of the Greenhouse Effect

You will be amazed to know that the greenhouse effect is one of the most important phenomena that are helpful for the sustaining of life on our Earth. Some major advantages of the greenhouse effect are given below;
     1)    The greenhouse effect is helpful for us to maintain a certain level of temperature on our Earth’s surface. After maintaining a certain level of temperature on our Earth, this planet has become habitable for living things like human beings, plants and animals etc.
     2)    The sun’s light reaches our Earth in the form of radiations. The Sun’s light has some harmful radiations. If these harmful radiations reach to our Earth’s surface, these radiations can become the cause of lots of destruction. The greenhouse gasses work like a filter and they work as a block against these harmful radiations of the Sun. As a result, harmful radiations of the Sun don’t reach to our Earth’s atmosphere.
    3)    Ozone is also known as one of the most crucial greenhouse gasses. This gas is present in the form of the layer above our Earth’s atmosphere. The main benefit of this Ozone layer is that it prevents the UV rays of the sun from reaching to our Earth’s atmosphere. In the absence of the Ozone layer, these UV rays of the sun will reach the Earth’s surface and these rays will affect our Earth’s life at a massive scale.
    4)    The greenhouse effect is also helpful for our planet to maintain the water level. Due to the moderate temperature on our Earth, the ice is not melted completely.

Disadvantages of the greenhouse effect

Nowadays, we are observing some critical changes in the atmosphere of our Earth. These changes are occurring due to the greenhouse effect. Some disadvantages of the greenhouse effect are given below;
    1)    Global warming is the major bad effect of the greenhouse effect on our Earth’s surface. Its reason is that due to some anthropogenic (man-made) sources, the concentration of the greenhouse gasses is increasing in Earth’s atmosphere. As a result, these greenhouse gasses are trapping more and more heat and our Earth’s temperature is increasing day by day. Due to this increase in the Earth’s atmosphere, the ice in the Polar Regions is also melting and this can become the cause of lots of destructions.
    2)    As we have discussed earlier that the concentration of the greenhouse gasses is increasing in the Earth’s atmosphere. The increased concentration level of CO2 has two effects on our Earth’s atmosphere. First of all, this gas is affecting marine life. Secondly, this gas is also disrupting the photosynthesis process in the plants.
    3)    Due to the greenhouse effect, the water level is also rising. This is also becoming a danger for millions of lives.

What is the solution of the greenhouse effect?

CO2 is known as the major source of the greenhouse effect and global warming. We are raising the level of CO2 in our atmosphere by burning fossil fuels. The only solution to the greenhouse effect is that we should reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses. Some essential tips to reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses in our atmosphere are given below;
     1)    We should follow the 3R strategy. 3R strategy means that we should reduce, reuse and recycle the things.
     2)    We should drive less and drive smartly. This is the best technique to reduce the emission of gasoline.
     3)    We should buy energy-efficient appliances. These energy-efficient appliances will save the consumption of energy.
     4)    We should use less hot water for bathing and washing the clothes. This is the best technique to save the addition of hundreds of pounds CO2 in the Earth’s atmosphere.
     5)    We should plant lots of trees. These trees absorb the CO2 and they give off Oxygen in the atmosphere. It is expected that if you plant a tree, it will absorb almost 1 ton of CO2 during its life.
     6)    We should also try to encourage others to follow energy conservation rules. This is possible only if we are following the energy conservation rules.

What will happen if there is no greenhouse effect?

If we are studying the greenhouse effect or we are observing the greenhouse effect, a question comes to our mind that ‘What will happen if there is no greenhouse effect?’. The main benefit of the greenhouse effect is that it is moderating our Earth’s temperature. If there are no greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere, the heat will not be trapped in our Earth’s atmosphere. As a result, the temperature of our Earth’s surface will be fallen to -18 C. It means that without the greenhouse effect, the life on our Earth will be frozen.