Showing posts with label Trends In Science. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Trends In Science. Show all posts

Cloning | Definition, Types, History, Facts & Process



what is cloning

What is cloning?

In biomedical research, we have to come across with cloning. In biomedical research, the definition of cloning is that the process in which we make duplicates of different kinds of biological materials for the research process is known as cloning. With the help of cloning, it is possible for us to prepare genetically identical copies of a cell or an organism. In other words, we can also define cloning as the process in which a cell replicates itself without any kind of genetic alternation is known as cloning. All the prokaryotic organisms like bacteria have the ability to create its identical copies by budding or binary fission. On the other hand, we are creating clones of all the eukaryotic organisms.

History of cloning

The concept of cloning is not a new concept in the biomedical science. Its reason is that first of all, a German Scientist Hans Adolf had given the concept of cloning in 1885. According to Genetic Science Learning Center, in 1902, he was able to divide an embryo into two viable embryos. After that, in 1958, a British biologist was able to create clones of a frog from the skin cells of an adult frog. The first clone of a mammal was created in 1996. In 1996, a female sheep gave birth to a Finn Desert Lamb. After preparing first clone of mammal, the scientists were able to find out the ways to prepare more clones of other animals. Later on, scientists were also able to create clones of different cells of human beings. In 2013, the scientists were able to create first clone of human cells and it was clone of stem cell. Nowadays, the scientists are using these stem cells for multiple purposes i.e hair re-growth and treatments from the burns.

You can also read our other post:
What is artificial intelligence?

Types of cloning

types of cloning

Most of the people think that there is only one type of cloning and that is organism cloning. They should come to know that there are three types of cloning and these three different types of cloning are explained below;

Molecular cloning

Molecular cloning is also known as gene cloning. With the help of molecular cloning, it is possible for us to prepare identical copies of DNA molecules in the chromosomes.

Organism cloning

Organism cloning is also known as reproductive cloning. With the help of organism cloning, it is possible for us to produce an identical copy of an organism.

Therapeutic cloning

In this essential type of cloning, it is possible for us to create clones of human embryos. These clones are created by producing the stem cells. After creating these clones, it is possible for us to use these clones for the treatment of various diseases.

Process of cloning

As we know that nowadays, it is possible for us to prepare clones of different kinds of animals but according to Bill Muir (a famous geneticist at the Purdue University), it is easy for us to prepare clones of cow than other animals. Its reason is that it is easy for us to obtain eggs from the cows than other animals. Here, we will discuss cloning process in cows. For this reason, first of all, we have to take DNA from the cell of an adult cow. This adult cow is known as donor.
After taking this DNA cell from an adult cow, we insert it in the egg cell of another cow. Before inserting DNA cell in the egg cell, we have to remove nucleus from the egg cell. After removing the nucleus, the egg cell will be able to read and duplicate the DNA of the donor cell. It is necessary for us to zap the newly born embryo cell with the help of electricity and it starts the multiplying process. When this newly-created embryo becomes a blastocyst, we implant it in the surrogate mother. As a result, a newly-born cow will be identical to the donor cow.

Facts about cloning

While studying cloning, there come some questions into our mind. If we want to learn it completely, it is necessary for us to get answers to these questions. Here, we will discuss some questions along with their answers about cloning.

Do clones ever occur naturally?

The answer to this question is “Yes”. There are some single celled organisms like bacteria that can reproduce identical copies of their cells with the help of asexual reproduction.

What sort of cloning research is going on at NHGRI?

The most common type of cloning research that is done by the researchers at the NHGRI is gene cloning.

Do cloned animals always look identical?

No, it is not possible that the cloned animals always look identical. Anyhow, these clones always share the same genetic material.

What Is Artificial Intelligence?



AI (Artificial Intelligence) is a wide ranging branch of computer science and it is concerned with the building of such smart machines that are capable to perform tasks just like human beings. Artificial intelligence is progressing very rapidly from the SIRI to self-driving cars. Artificial intelligence is divided into two categories. First is known as weak AI. Weak AI means that scientists are working on the preparation of such machines which are able to perform narrow tasks like a facial reorganization. The second type is known as strong AI. Strong AI means that scientists are working on the preparation of such machines that are able to perform some specific tasks like playing chess or solving equations.


what is artificial intelligence

artificial intelligence gif


Main components and characteristics of artificial intelligence

In order to operate different kinds of intelligent systems, it is necessary for us to get an idea about the main components of artificial intelligence. Main components or characteristics of artificial intelligence are explained below;


characteristics of artificial intelligence

1.     Feature engineering

The process in which we identify the minimal number of informative features from a dataset is known as feature extraction. It is possible for us to improve the performance of the machine learning with the help of these informative features. For this reason, first of all, we should reduce the entropy of the system because it is helpful for us to increase the information gain. Secondly, we should try to ensure zero correlation among these informative features of the machines.

2.     Artificial neural networks

There is a set of computing nodes in the consecutive layers of the artificial machines. The main function of these neural networks is to provide weighted interconnections between these nodes and consecutive layers of the artificial machines. With the help of these neural networks, it is possible for us to reduce the optimal weight of the connections. Its reason is that with the help of these artificial neural networks, these connections can adopt common-weight sharing strategy. Some essential kinds of artificial neural networks are CNN (Convolution Neural Networks) and RNN (Recurrent Neural Networks) etc.

3.     Deep learning

Between input and output layers of artificial machines, there are layers of deep learning. With the help of these deep learning frameworks, it is possible for the artificial machines to perform automatic feature extractions along with classification learning. With the help of these deep layers, it is also possible for us to decrease the learning time of the artificial machines.

Applications of artificial intelligence

Nowadays, we are using artificial intelligence in almost all fields of life. Some essential applications of artificial intelligence are given below;


applications of artificial intelligence

1.     SIRI

Almost all the people are familiar with the personal assistant of Apple. Her name is SIRI. We have to interact with this friendly voice-activated computer on a daily basis. SIRI is helping us in various ways like with the help of her assistance, it is possible for us to find the required amount of information, to add some specific events in the calendars, to get directions from her and so on. In order to understand our questions and to provide possible answers to these questions, SIRI is using machine learning technology.

2.     Alexa

Alexa is helpful for those people who have limited mobility. Its reason is that with the help of machine learning abilities of Alexa, it is possible for us to scour the web for information, to shop anything, to schedule the appointments, to set alarms and other millions of tasks.

3.     Tesla

If you have not used Tesla yet, it means that you have missed a lot. Its reason is that Tesla is known as the best driving car that is ever made. Its reason is that this essential kind of driving car has lots of features like it has lots of predictive capabilities, it has self-driving features and it is also using sheer technology that is known as coolness. If you are interested in the field of technology and you can easily own cars, it is necessary for you to own Tesla.

4.     Cogito

Nowadays, we are receiving millions of phone calls that are based on artificial intelligence. For this reason, companies are using Cogito technology. The most important benefit of using this technology for making phone calls is that it is possible for us to improve the emotional intelligence of the customers. As a result, these companies are able to improve customer relationship.

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5.     Netflix

If you are interested in watching movies, you will be familiar with Netflix. Netflix is using highly accurate predictive technology. By using this technology, it is possible for Netflix to analyze the reactions of the customers. After analyzing their reactions, it shows the best results for their favourite movies. As the dataset of this essential technology is growing over the years, therefore, it is getting smarter and smarter. The only drawback of this technology is that it is promoting only big-named movies and small-labelled movies remain unnoticed.

6.     Nest

Almost all the people are familiar with the Nest. Its reason is that we are using Nest in our homes and offices for controlling temperatures according to our needs. Now, the most important quality of this artificial technology is that it is easy for us to control it with the help of voice.

Advantages of artificial intelligence

There are lots of benefits of artificial intelligence. Some essential advantages of artificial intelligence are explained below;


advantages of artificial intelligence

1.     Reduction in human error

As a human being, there are chances of making some mistakes. On the other hand, if we are operating anything with the help of artificial intelligence, there will be no chance of error. Its reason is that artificial intelligence is performing different tasks on the basis of previously gathered information. You just need to operate the artificial machines by proper programming.

2.     Takes risks instead of humans

It is a fact that there are some tasks that are very risky for human beings. For example, it is risky for human beings to go on Mars, to defuse a bomb and to explore the deepest parts of the ocean. For this reason, we can prepare robots and these robots can do these tasks for us.

3.     Available 24X7

It is also a fact that it is impossible for a human being to work actively 24 hours of the day. Its reason is that a human being requires breaks for the preparation of the next day’s work. Under such a situation, a human being can work 6 to 8 hours in a day. On the other hand, artificial machines can work around the clock without any break. Therefore, we can say that these artificial machines are available 24 hours of the day.

4.     Helpful in repetitive jobs

In our daily life, we have to perform different kinds of repetitive tasks and sometimes, these repetitive tasks are boring for us. With the help of artificial machines, it is possible for us to perform these repetitive tasks. While performing these repetitive tasks, these machines will never make any kind of mistake. On the other hand, while performing repetitive tasks, a human being can make some mistakes.

5.     Digital assistance

There are lots of companies that are using digital assistants in order to interact with their customers. With the help of this digital assistance, it is also possible for these companies to decrease the needs of human assistance. Moreover, this digital assistance is available for the assistance of the customers around the clock without any time limitation.

Disadvantages of artificial intelligence

Along with the advantages of artificial intelligence, there are also some disadvantages of artificial intelligence. These disadvantages are explained below;


disadvantages of artificial intelligence

1.     High costs of creation

As we know that these artificial machines are very complex and in order to create these artificial machines, there require huge costs. Moreover, we are also observing lots of updates in the field of artificial intelligence. Therefore, if we want to meet the latest requirements of AI, it is also necessary for us to update hardware and software.

2.     Making humans lazy

As we know that with the help of artificial intelligence, it is possible for us to automate the majority of the work. As a result, human beings are becoming addicts of these machines and this thing can create lots of problems for future generations.

3.     Unemployment

It is also a fact that artificial intelligence is also taking positions of human beings in most of the companies. Therefore, we can also say that the developments in the field of artificial intelligence can also create lots of unemployment issues for human beings.

4.     No emotions

Nowadays, we are using artificial machines at work places. While working at a workplace, it is necessary for us to work by making a team. These machines can’t develop bonds with human beings. As a result, it is almost impossible for us to work by making a team with these artificial machines.

5.     Lacking out of box thinking

One of the major drawbacks of these artificial machines is that these artificial machines can only perform those tasks that are programmed in them. It means that it is almost impossible for us to increase productivity within a company by using artificial machines.