## What is a graph?

As a science
student, we have to use the graph in various ways. The definition of the graph
is given below;

“The
representation of the data in the pictorial form or in the form of a diagram is
known as a graph. While drawing a graph, we have to organize the data in a well-organized
manner. By drawing a graph, we have to show the relationship between two or
more than two things.”

# Parts of a graph

The main
parts of a graph are given below;

## 1. X-Axis

The
horizontal axis on the graph is known as the x-axis. The x-axis is divided into
two parts. First is known as the positive x-axis. On the positive x-axis, the
numbers are represented as (0, 1, 2…..). Second is known as the negative
x-axis. On the negative x-axis, the numbers are represented as (0, -1, -2….).

## 2. Y-Axis

The
vertical axis on the graph is known as the x-axis. The y-axis is also divided
into parts. First is known as the positive y-axis. On the positive y-axis, the
numbers are represented as (0, 1, 2….). Second is known as the negative y-axis.
On the negative y-axis, the numbers are represented as (0, -1, -2….).

## 3. The Origin

When
we draw two lines of the graph (x-axis, y-axis) in such a way that they cross
each other at a point, this point of intersection is known as the origin. The
points of origin are (0,0). In order to
represent the origin, we use the sign ‘O’.

You may also like to read: Newton's laws of motion

You may also like to read: Newton's laws of motion

# Types of graphs

There are
various types of graphs. Some essential types of graphs are given below;

## 1. Line graph or line chart

A
line graph or a line chart is also known as a curve chart. In order to draw a
line graph, we have to represent the data as a series of points. This series of
points are connected by the line segments. Usually, these line segments are
connected in the form of the straight line.

## 2. Bar graph

In a
bar graph, we have to represent the data in the form of bars. In these bars, we
have to categorize the data in different kinds of rectangular bars. There are
two types of bar graphs. First is known as a vertical bar graph. In the
vertical bar graph, we have to represent the data in the form of vertical
rectangular bars. Second is known as a horizontal bar graph. In the horizontal
bar graph, we have to represent the data in the horizontal rectangular bars.

## 3. Combo chart

The
representation of the data in the form of both bars and lines is known as the combo
chart. This kind of bar is used when we have to represent the data of different
series. There is also a possibility that units and scales of these series are
also different from each other.

## 4. Pie charts

These
kinds of graphs are very easy to manipulate and these kinds of graphs are also
easy to read. With the help of pie charts, it is easy for us to represent the
categorical data. In order to draw the pie graph, we have to draw a circle and
after drawing this circle, we have to divide this circle into different
segments or categories. The total value of this graph is 360. In order to plot
a specific value on the pie graph, we have to assign particular value out of
360. The sum of the values of all the things should be equal to 360.

## 5. Pictographs

A
pictograph is also known as a pictogram. In order to draw a pictogram, we have
to use diagrams and we have to compare these diagrams. Mostly, this kind of
graph is drawn by the media channels in order to get an idea about different
trends. For example, if you want to prepare a graph of nurses on the
pictograph, you will have to consider a tiny figure a nurse. After considering
it a nurse, we have to assign a specific number to this symbol.

## 6. Flowcharts

If
you want to display the information in the schematic process, this
representation of the information is known as a flowchart. Usually, this kind
of graph is drawn by the businessmen. The businessmen draw this kind of graph
in order to display all the stages of the project.

## 7. Doughnut charts

These
are similar to the pie charts. In the doughnut charts, the central part is cut
out. With the help of doughnut charts, it is easy for us to compare the values
of different data groups. Due to the blank spaces in the doughnut charts, it is
easy for us to present more information with the help of doughnut charts than
pie charts.

## 8. Area charts

These
kinds of charts are very similar to the line graphs. With the help of area
charts, we have to display two different kinds of categories. It means that the
area charts are also helpful for us to show the nature of the selected data. If
we want to display a change between two different categories, area charts are
also ideal for us.

## 9. Gauge chart

It is
an advanced type of graph. In order to make this graph, we have to combine pie
charts and doughnut charts. This kind of graphing technique is helpful for us
to draw a single type of data and after drawing this graph, it is also easy for
us to scale this data.

## 10. Spider chart

A spider chart is also known as a radar graph. With the help of a spider
graph, it is easy for us to show qualitative data. After displaying this data
on the graph, it is also easy for us to compare this data. For example, if you
want to compare different characteristics of three or more phones, spider chart
is the best choice for you.

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